New to forum, help going back to stock

Discussion in 'Fox 5.0 Mustang Tech' started by jcgafford, Jan 8, 2012.


  1. jcgafford

    jcgafford Advanced Member

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    Hi, New to the forums and just bought a 1992 gt vert. Had a 91 back in highschool (4 banger) and had to have another with a real engine. Previous owner deleted a/c and smog pump but it appears he just cut and plugged the lines. All the parts are still there. Anyone have a schematic for rerunning the lines? I am a stock kinda guy and want it back to original. The nipple on the rear of the intake manifold has no line i can find to go to it. Also passenger side firewall, mid engine height. There is a larger line that is blocked that i am a little unsure of the end routing. Also what appears to be a tiny vacuum line that splits into three seperate lines near the passenger firewall has a white line that is plugged. Any help would be greatly appreciated. This car needs ALOT of work and with winter here the engine seems to be the best place to start. Thanks!

    I think i should add the plans for this stock GT. My son is 4 this February. When he is old enough to drive this will be his. I have years to get it perfect, but not patience. Plus dad needs to play too!
     
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  2. jcgafford

    jcgafford Advanced Member

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    think i figured smog out. intake manifold, bottom has port with plug. when looking straight at engine it would be on passenger side. line is correct length, is this the right spot? large line in question goes to a/c so that is solved. a/c slot on vacuum tree is plugged, there is a white vacuum line that i had questioned. do these connect? they are very small and obviously missing something in between. not real sure on this one.
     
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  3. jcgafford

    jcgafford Advanced Member

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  4. Boydster

    Boydster Active Member

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    The forward unit is the Thermactor Air Bypass Valve. The rear one is the Thermactor Air Diverter Valve. Also known as TAB and TAD. These are controlled by vac switches mounted on the rear of the passenger side shock tower.

    This schematic should help you a great deal, although your 92 might be a bit different.

    88Stang5.0Vacuum.gif
     
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  5. jcgafford

    jcgafford Advanced Member

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    Thanks! One more for you if you can help. Tube off the charcoal canister. Comes up ontop the engine, looks like it should connect under the upper intake manifold. Does it connect to the port on the passenger side?
     
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  6. jcgafford

    jcgafford Advanced Member

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    Just did a pretty good search for a replacement tab and tad. Ummm. Ford only? Gonna be worth their weight in gold if that is the only supplier.
     
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  7. Boydster

    Boydster Active Member

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    The vac line off the canister should have the purge solenoid in it. It runs on top of the engine, around the dizzy and connects to a vac source under the upper intake. It does not connect to any port on the lower intake. I dont remember any vac port on the lower intake.

    Hmmm... there is a nipple installed at the back of the lower intake, passenger side. That is used for coolant return from the EGR spacer. Coolant supply comes from one of the metal heater tubes. Perhaps your EGR spacer coolant lines have been removed?

    Pics would do wonders here.

    Also, in that diagram, there is a line going from manifold vac to the MAP sensor. That's for a Speed Density setup. Yours shouldn't use that line... the MAP sensor should be open.
     
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  8. jcgafford

    jcgafford Advanced Member

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    "Perhaps your EGR spacer coolant lines have been removed?"
    Yes and no. Whoever got into this engine did not understand the mods they were attempting. Tubes cut and plugged but the actual hardware and pulleys you would want to remove are all there. The front coolant tube is there, the rear is mia for now. Perhaps i can get under it when the kids nap to see if it is cut and plugged or hanging under the engine. I will snap pics to! Thanks
     
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  9. Boydster

    Boydster Active Member

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    Ugh. Straightening out another persons mess is, well, a mess. There's a lot of knowledge on here... post up some pics, take it one system at a time and I'm sure you'll get fixed back up.
     
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  10. jcgafford

    jcgafford Advanced Member

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    mustang fix 001.JPG mustang fix 003.JPG mustang fix 004.JPG mustang fix 005.JPG
     

    Attached Files:

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  11. jcgafford

    jcgafford Advanced Member

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    first pic, nipple to the rear. where does it go? second pic. line from charcoal canister, goes in little "cave" under intake manifold? (third pic, a/c line cut. where does it attach?) - never even saw the other part of the line, must have exposed it when i moved things for the pic- this one is solved! fourth pic, think it goes to the line in question for the "smog" pump other attached pics are there so you can see what i am actually working on!
     
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  12. Boydster

    Boydster Active Member

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    The nipple on the rear of the EGR spacer is one of the cooling tubes we talked about. There should be a hose on it, just like the front one, about 6 or 8 inches long with a single 90* bend that goes to the lower intake manifold, rear passenger side corner. There should be a brass fitting screwed into the manifold with another nipple on it. However, with this hose removed, you'd have a massive coolant leak, so the nipple has either been capped or replaced with a plug.

    Yes. There should be a vac nipple under there that the vac hose goes onto. Use a bright light and look back under there.

    You got it!

    I believe this will go to either the TAB or TAD vac valve. You know... the ones that are missing.

    Nice project car. Once you get through the previous owner's crap and clean 'er up a bit, you'll have a nice cruiser.
     
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  13. jcgafford

    jcgafford Advanced Member

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    looks like the "TAB" and "TAD" are useless to me. (i think). Car has a BBK x pipe and no cats. What else does the smog stuff do besides draw air for the cats? As there are no O2 sensors except right off the headers I see no reason to not allow this small mod to stay if it does not alter anything else.(no codes right?) If it does stay that tube that connected to the smog pump will need to be cleaned up. Any advice out there on this delete? I want everything to work on this car, does this affect any other operation in it? When air is routed into the engine after warmup instead of to the cats via the smog pump i assume it has a reason to do this. What is the reason and what happens when you plug this and dont allow air into the engine from the smog pump?
     
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  14. jcgafford

    jcgafford Advanced Member

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    pic one and two fixed working on number three!!!!
     
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  15. Boydster

    Boydster Active Member

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    Without TAB & TAD, your exhaust can sometimes smell somewhat rich. This goes hand-in-hand with not having cats. The car may be running fine, it's just that the exhaust is not being cleaned up as much.

    When deleting TAB & TAD, you can get rid of the smog pump. Can be as simple as a smaller belt or you can remove it and install a dummy pulley (several choices at Summit), keeping the original belt.

    There's also the crossover tube to the cyl heads. This will need to be plugged or removed. If you remove it, you'll have to plug the hole in the heads. I think it takes a 5/16 plug (research this size). Difficult to get to, but it can be done. There will be carbon buildup in the threads, so it'll be difficult to get the plug to screw in.

    Make sure you do something with the vac solenoids for TAB & TAD. Remove the output lines and cap or remove the solenoids from the car and cap the input lines.

    You will get codes with having the system deactivated. You'll get a CEL, too. However, the car will run fine without it. The CEL is simply telling you that the Thermactor System is not working.

    Be aware that legally, this is a big nono. It's against Federal Law to remove, tamper with or disable any emissions system. But your car will run fine without it, and it's a whole lot easier to change plugs. :nice:
     
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  16. Maryland Stang

    Maryland Stang Active Member

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  17. jcgafford

    jcgafford Advanced Member

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    "Be aware that legally, this is a big nono. It's against Federal Law to remove, tamper with or disable any emissions system. But your car will run fine without it, and it's a whole lot easier to change plugs."

    HMMM.... Title has not been transfered yet. What legal repercussions do I have. I assume it is illegal to sell them like this? Sounds like a call to the seller is gonna happen.

    If i keep it can i hook up the thermactor and just leave the bottom pipe open to air? Will that kill the codes if it is all there but not hooked up to the exhaust?
     
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  18. jrichker

    jrichker StangNet's favorite TOOL SN Certified Technician Founding Member

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    Some funtional diagrams to help out...

    Some basic theory to clarify how things work is in order…

    EGR System theory and testing

    The EGR shuts off at Wide Open Throttle (WOT), so it has minimal effect on performance. The addition of exhaust gas drops combustion temperature, increases gas mileage and reduces the tendency of the engine to ping. It can also reduce HC emissions by reducing fuel consumption. The primary result of EGR usage is a reduction in NOx emissions.

    The EGR system has a vacuum source (line from the intake manifold) that goes to the EVR, computer operated electronic vacuum regulator. The EVR is located on the back of the passenger side shock strut tower. The computer uses RPM, Load. and some other factors to tell the EVR to pass vacuum to open the EGR valve. The EGR valve and the passages in the heads and intake manifold route exhaust gas to the EGR spacer (throttle body spacer). The EGR sensor tells the computer how far the EGR valve is open. Then computer adjusts the signal sent to the EVR to hold, increase or decrease the vacuum. The computer adds spark advance to compensate for the recirculated gases and the slower rate they burn at.


    [​IMG]

    Troubleshooting:
    There should be no vacuum at the EGR valve when at idle. If there is, the EVR (electronic vacuum regulator) mounted on the backside of the passenger side wheelwell is suspect. Check the vacuum line plumbing to make sure the previous owner didn’t cross the vacuum lines.

    Diagram courtesy of Tmoss & Stang&2birds. (the diagram says 88 GT, but the EGR part is the same for 86-93 Mustangs)
    [​IMG]

    The EGR sensor is basically a variable resistor, like the volume control on a radio. One end is 5 volt VREF power from the computer (red/orange wire). One end is computer signal ground (black/white), and the middle wire (brown/lt green) is the signal output from the EGR sensor. It is designed to always have some small voltage output from it anytime the ignition switch is the Run position. That way the computer knows the sensor & the wiring is OK. No voltage on computer pin 27 (brown/lt green wire) and the computer thinks the sensor is bad or the wire is broken and sets code 31. The voltage output can range from approximately .6-.85 volt.

    The EVR regulates vacuum to the EGR valve to maintain the correct amount of vacuum. The solenoid coil should measure 20-70 Ohms resistance. The regulator has a vacuum feed on the bottom which draws from the intake manifold. The other vacuum line is regulated vacuum going to the EGR valve. One side of the EVR electrical circuit is +12 volts anytime the ignition switch is in the run position. The other side of the electrical circuit is the ground path and is controlled by the computer. The computer switches the ground on and off to control the regulator solenoid.



    EGR test procedure courtesy of cjones

    EGR test procedure courtesy of cjones

    to check the EGR valve:
    bring the engine to normal temp.

    connect a vacuum pump to the EGR Valve or see the EGR test jig drawing below. Connnect the test jig or to directly to manifold vacuum.

    Do not connect the EGR test jig to the EVR (Electronic Vacuum Regulator).


    apply 5in vacuum to the valve. Using the test jig, use your finger to vary the vacuum

    if engine stumbled or died then EGR Valve and passage(there is a passageway through the heads and intake) are good.

    if engine did NOT stumble or die then either the EGR Valve is bad and/or the passage is blocked.

    if engine stumbled, connect EGR test jig to the hose coming off of the EGR Valve.
    Use your finger to cap the open port on the vacuum tee.
    snap throttle to 2500 RPM (remember snap the throttle don't hold it there).
    did the vacuum gauge show about 2-5 in vacuum?
    if not the EVR has failed

    EGR test jig
    [​IMG]

    To test the computer and wiring to the computer, you can use a test light across the EVR wiring connectors and dump the codes. When you dump the codes, the computer does a self test that toggles every relay/actuator/solenoid on and off. When this happens, the test light will flicker. If the test light remains on the computer or the wiring is suspect.

    To check the EVR to computer wiring, disconnect the EVR connector and connect one end of the Ohmmeter to the dark green wire EVR wiring. Remove the passenger side kick panel and use a 10 MM socket to remove the computer connector from the computer. Set the Ohmmeter to high range and connect the other ohmmeter lead to ground. You should see an infinite open circuit indication or a reading greater than 1 Meg Ohm. If you see less than 200 Ohms, the dark green wire has shorted to ground somewhere.

    Late Model Restoration may still have the Ford Racing M-12071-N302 kit with the EGR valve & sensor along with the ACT & ECT sensors for $45. See http://www.latemodelrestoration.com/iwwida.pvx?;item?item_no=M12071N302 1&comp=LRS for more details




    Thermactor Air System
    Some review of how it works...

    Revised 17-Sept-2011 to add testing procedure.

    The Thermactor air pump (smog pump) supplies air to the heads or catalytic converters. This air helps break down the excess HC (hydrocarbons) and CO (carbon monoxide). The air supplied to the catalytic converters helps create the catalytic reaction that changes the HC & CO into CO2 and water vapor. Catalytic converters on 5.0 Mustangs are designed to use the extra air provided by the smog pump. Without the extra air, the catalytic converters will clog and fail.

    The Thermactor air pump draws air from an inlet filter in the front of the pump. The smog pump puts air into the heads when the engine is cold and then into the catalytic converters when it is warm. The Thermactor control valves serve to direct the flow. The first valve, TAB (Thermactor Air Bypass) or AM1 valve) either dumps air to the atmosphere or passes it on to the second valve. The second valve, TAD (Thermactor Air Diverter valve or AM2 valve) directs it to the heads or the catalytic converters. Check valves located after the TAB & TAD solenoids prevent hot exhaust gases from damaging the control valves or pump in case of a backfire. The air serves to help consume any unburned hydrocarbons by supplying extra oxygen to the catalytic process. The computer tells the Thermactor Air System to open the Bypass valve at WOT (wide open throttle) minimizing engine drag. This dumps the pump's output to the atmosphere, and reduces the parasitic drag caused by the smog pump to about 2-4 HP at WOT. The Bypass valve also opens during deceleration to reduce or prevent backfires.

    Code 44 RH side air not functioning.
    Code 94 LH side air not functioning.

    The computer uses the change in the O2 sensor readings to detect operation of the Thermactor control valves. When the dump valve opens, it reduces the O2 readings in the exhaust system. Then it closes the dump valve and the O2 readings increase. By toggling the dump valve (TAB), the computer tests for the 44/94 codes.

    Failure mode is usually due to a clogged air crossover tube, where one or both sides of the tube clog with carbon. The air crossover tube mounts on the back of the cylinder heads and supplies air to each of the Thermactor air passages cast into the cylinder heads. When the heads do not get the proper air delivery, they set codes 44 & 94, depending on which passage is clogged. It is possible to get both 44 & 94, which would suggest that the air pump or control valves are not working correctly, or the crossover tube is full of carbon or missing.


    [​IMG]



    Computer operation & control for the Thermactor Air System
    Automobile computers use current sink technology. They do not source power to any relay, solenoid or actuator like the IAC, fuel pump relay, or fuel injectors. Instead the computer provides a ground path for the positive battery voltage to get back to the battery negative terminal. That flow of power from positive to negative is what provides the energy to make the IAC, fuel pump relay, or fuel injectors work. No ground provided by the computer, then the actuators and relays don't operate.

    One side of the any relay/actuator/solenoid in the engine compartment will be connected to a red wire that has 12-14 volts anytime the ignition switch is in the run position. The other side will have 12-14 volts when the relay/actuator/solenoid isn't turned on. Once the computer turns on the clamp side, the voltage on the computer side of the wire will drop down to 1 volt or less.

    In order to test the TAD/TAB solenoids, you need to ground the white/red wire on the TAB solenoid or the light green/black wire on the TAD solenoid.

    For 94-95 cars: the colors are different. The White/Red wire (TAB control) is White/Orange (Pin 31 on the PCM). The Green/Black wire (TAD control) should be Brown (pin 34 at the PCM). Thanks to HISSIN50 for this tip.

    Testing the system:

    To test the computer, you can use a test light across the TAB or TAD wiring connectors and dump the codes. When you dump the codes, the computer does a self test that toggles every relay/actuator/solenoid on and off. When this happens, the test light will flicker.

    Disconnect the big hose from smog pump: with the engine running you should feel air output. Reconnect the smog pump hose & apply vacuum to the first vacuum controlled valve: Its purpose is to either dump the pump's output to the atmosphere or pass it to the next valve.

    The next vacuum controlled valve directs the air to either the cylinder heads when the engine is cold or to the catalytic converter when the engine is warm. Disconnect the big hoses from the back side of the vacuum controlled valve and start the engine. Apply vacuum to the valve and see if the airflow changes from one hose to the next.

    The two electrical controlled vacuum valves mounted on the rear of the passenger side wheel well turn the vacuum on & off under computer control. Check to see that both valves have +12 volts on the red wire. Then ground the white/red wire and the first solenoid should open and pass vacuum. Do the same thing to the light green/black wire on the second solenoid and it should open and pass vacuum.

    Remember that the computer does not source power for any actuator or relay, but provides the ground necessary to complete the circuit. That means one side of the circuit will always be hot, and the other side will go to ground or below 1 volt as the computer switches on that circuit.

    The computer provides the ground to complete the circuit to power the solenoid valve that turns the
    vacuum on or off. The computer is located under the passenger side kick panel. Remove the kick panel & the cover over the computer wiring connector pins. Check Pin 38 Solenoid valve #1 that provides vacuum to the first Thermactor control valve for a switch from 12-14 volts to 1 volt or less. Do the same with pin 32 solenoid valve #2 that provides vacuum to the second Thermactor control valve. Starting the engine with the computer jumpered to self test mode will cause all the actuators to toggle on and off. If after doing this and you see no switching of the voltage on and off, you can start testing the wiring for shorts to ground and broken wiring. An Ohm check to ground with the computer connector disconnected & the solenoid valves disconnected should show open circuit between the pin 32 and ground and again on pin 38 and ground. In like manner, there should be less than 1 ohm between pin 32 and solenoid valve #2 and pin 38 & Solenoid valve #1.

    If after checking the resistance of the wiring & you are sure that there are no wiring faults, start looking at the solenoid valves. If you disconnect them, you can jumper power & ground to them to verify operation. Power & ground supplied should turn on the vacuum flow, remove either one and the vacuum should stop flowing.

    Typical resistance of the solenoid valves is in the range of 20-70 Ohms.

    Theory of operation:
    Catalytic converters consist of two different types of catalysts: Reduction and Oxidation.
    The Reduction catalyst is the first converter in a 5.0 Mustang, and the Oxidation converter is the second converter. The Oxidation converter uses the extra air from the smog pump to burn the excess HC. Aftermarket converters that use the smog pump often combine both types of catalysts in one housing. Since all catalytic reactions depend on heat to happen, catalytic converters do not work as efficiently with long tube headers. The extra length of the long tubes reduces the heat available to operate the O2 sensors and the catalytic converters. That will cause emissions problems, and reduce the chances of passing an actual smog test.


    Now for the Chemistry...
    "The reduction catalyst is the first stage of the catalytic converter. It uses platinum and rhodium to help reduce the NOx emissions. When an NO or NO2 molecule contacts the catalyst, the catalyst rips the nitrogen atom out of the molecule and holds on to it, freeing the oxygen in the form of O2. The nitrogen atoms bond with other nitrogen atoms that are also stuck to the catalyst, forming N2. For example:

    2NO => N2 + O2 or 2NO2 => N2 + 2O2

    The oxidation catalyst is the second stage of the catalytic converter. It reduces the unburned hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide by burning (oxidizing) them over a platinum and palladium catalyst. This catalyst aids the reaction of the CO and hydrocarbons with the remaining oxygen in the exhaust gas. For example:

    2CO + O2 => 2CO2

    There are two main types of structures used in catalytic converters -- honeycomb and ceramic beads. Most cars today use a honeycomb structure." Quote courtesy of How Stuff Works (HowStuffWorks "Catalysts")

    What happens when there is no extra air from the smog pump...
    As engines age, the quality of tune decreases and wear causes them to burn oil. We have all seem cars that go down the road puffing blue or black smoke from the tailpipe. Oil consumption and poor tune increase the amount of HC the oxidation catalyst has to deal with. The excess HC that the converters cannot oxidize due to lack of extra air becomes a crusty coating inside the honeycomb structure. This effectively reduces the size of the honeycomb passageways and builds up thicker over time and mileage. Continuous usage under such conditions will cause the converter to fail and clog. The extra air provided by the Thermactor Air System (smog pump) is essential for the oxidation process. It oxidizes the added HC from oil consumption and poor tune and keeps the HC levels within acceptable limits.

    Newer catalytic converters do not use the Thermactor Air System (smog pump) because they are designed to work with an improved computer system that runs leaner and cleaner
    They add an extra set of O2 sensors after the catalytic converters to monitor the oxygen and HC levels. Using this additional information, the improved computer system adjusts the air/fuel mixture for cleaner combustion and reduced emissions. If the computer cannot compensate for the added load of emissions due to wear and poor tune, the catalytic converters will eventually fail and clog. The periodic checks (smog inspections) are supposed to help owners keep track of problems and get them repaired.



    Charcoal canister plumbing - one 3/8" tube from the bottom of the upper manifold to the rubber hose. Rubber hose connects to one side of the canister solenoid valve. Other side of the solenoid valve connects to one side of the canister. The other side of the canister connects to a rubber hose that connects to a line that goes all the way back to the gas tank. There is an electrical connector coming from the passenger side injector harness near #1 injector that plugs into the canister solenoid valve. It's purpose is to vent the gas tank. The solenoid valve opens at cruse to provide some extra fuel. The canister is normally mounted on the passenger side frame rail near the smog pump pulley.

    [​IMG]

    It does not weigh but a pound or so and helps richen up the cruse mixture. It draws no HP & keeps the car from smelling like gasoline in a closed garage. So with all these good things and no bad ones, why not hook it up & use it?


    The purge valve solenoid connector is a dangling wire that is near the ECT sensor and oil filler on the passenger side rocker cover. The actual solenoid valve is down next to the carbon canister. There is about 12"-16" of wire that runs parallel to the canister vent hose that comes off the bottom side of the upper intake manifold. That hose connects one port of the solenoid valve; the other port connects to the carbon canister.

    The purge valve solenoid should be available at your local auto parts store.

    Purge valve solenoid:
    [​IMG]


    The carbon canister is normally mounted on the passenger side frame rail near the smog pump pulley.
    Carbon Canister:
    [​IMG]
     
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  19. Boydster

    Boydster Active Member

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    I dont know about your state and what the requirements are when buying a car. In Maryland, title transfer (sale) requires an inspection. Some places will fail you for not having complete emissions equipment. In Maryland, a car over 20 yrs old can get Historic tags and is then exempt from emissions testing and can get those tags without an inspection, so not having the emissions equipment is no big deal. I would certainly make sure I was going to be able to tag the car before finalizing the deal.

    Yeah, if you just leave the pipe open that normally goes down to the cats, but have everything else installed and it all works, it will keep the codes away. The pipe attaches to the exhaust after the O2 sensors. Anything after the O2 sensors, the computer doesn't know about.
     
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  20. ID89GT

    ID89GT Active Member

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    If you don't have cats then I wouldn't worry about the smog pump stuff.. Even with it all hooked up and no cats it ain't gonna do much, if anything at all. If you really wanted to hook it up the right way you would need to buy a whole new h pipe with the cats installed. Then you can hook it up back to stock.
     
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